A computer is an electronic device that can perform various computational tasks. Since it is a machine so it cannot perform the tasks on its own. Some instructions need to be given to the computer so that it can perform the tasks. The instructions which are given to the computer are known as program. The person who provides these instructions is known as a programmer. The language in which the programs are written is known as a programming language. There are many programming languages available today to provide the instructions to the computer like C++, C, java, C#, etc. C++ is also one of the programming languages which is widely used.
History of C++
The C++ programming language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup and his team in 1979 at his bell laboratories of New Jersey. When C++ was created, it was not called as C++, initially it was called “C with classes”. During the 1970’s, the C programming language was one of the most widely used and popular programming languages. Nowadays also, C is a very famous programming language but it has some limitations. Year by year, the computational tasks increased due to which the programming complexity also increased. As the programming complexity increased, the length of the program was increased which became difficult to manage. So, Bjarne Stroustrup started working with his team and added new features in it. The main feature which was added was the Object-oriented programming and they developed the new programming language known as “C with classes”. Here class is a feature of the object-oriented programming language. The programming approach of “C with classes” is totally different from the C language. The idea of adding object-oriented feature in “C with classes” came from the already existing object-oriented programing language at that time known as simula 67. Therefore, we can say that “C with classes” contain the features of C as well as simula 67 programming language, so it is a better programming language to perform the complex operations. In 1983, the “C with classes” was renamed as C++.
“C with classes” was renamed as C++ because C++ is an extension of the C language so ++ denotes the extension of the C language.
Why we choose C++?
The following are the main reasons for the widely used of C++:
- Very fast: The programs which are written in C++ run very quickly due to which C++ is used in games and business development. Most of the programs that we use are written in C++. The programs like Google chrome and Microsoft office are all written in C++. C++ achieve such great speed as it is a mid-level language so it can easily communicate with the hardware.
- Easy to learn: C++ is a simple language so it is easy to understand.
- Self-memory management: Pointers in C++ provides self-memory management that increases the speed of the program. When we want to delete the memory, we need to delete it explicitly.
Applications of C++
The following are the applications of C++:
- Mobile games
C++ is widely used for the gaming applications. Like Snake game, super mario, contra, and various other games are developed in C++.
- Operating system
The major parts of the widely used operating system are developed in C++. Like Window 10 which is the most commonly used operating system nowadays is written in C++, IOS used in apple products is also written in C++, and various other operating systems like MS DOS, Unix, Linux are also written in C++.
- GUI Applications
The C++ programming language is used for developing the GUI applications where the user can interact with a computer through buttons in the menu.
- Image editing software
It is also used in developing the image editing software like Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator were all written in C++.
The various browsers were written in C++ because of the speed that C++ provides. The browsers require a programming language that offers a high speed as users cannot wait for the content to come up on the screen. Due to this reason, various browsers have been written in C++, and the most commonly used browser which is written in C++ is Mozilla Firefox.
The various libraries use C++ programming language because of the speed that C++ provides. Like Tensorflow is the most widely used library in machine learning that uses C++ programming language for backend programming that involves huge computations like multiplications of matrices for training the matrices.
- Cloud/Distributed system
As we know that C++ is a low-level programming so it also works very close to the hardware. Due to this reason, the cloud storage systems use C++ programming language.
- Banking applications
Banking applications are those applications that perform millions of transactions, so they require high concurrency. So, C++ becomes a big support for such applications by providing multithreading support available in a STL library. Infosys Finacle is one of the most widely used banking application that uses C++ programming language for backend programming.
Various databases are also written in C++. Like Postgres and MySQL are the most widely used databases nowadays are developed in C++.
- Embedded systems
The various embedded systems also use C++ programming language like medicines, smartwatches, etc. as this language works very close to the hardware.
The various compilers of different languages are also developed in C++ as it supports low-level programming.